Friday, May 22, 2020
Case Discussion Questions 1. Should Nike be held responsible for working conditions in foreign factories that it does not own, but where subcontractors make products for Nike? Some people probably think that designing and marketing its products is what Nike is responsible for. But outsourcing its manufacturing divisions into foreign countries doesnÃ ´t release Nike from the responsibility. During a developing process manufacturing is one of the most important intermediate steps and because of that it belongs to NikeÃ ´s responsibilities, no matter if they own the manufacturer or not. Everybody knows that it is hard to keep the overview about every developing stage but if you decide to put this step into a foreign country, you have toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The next step is the improvement of working conditions. Here an employee should work maximum Ã¢â¬Å"54 hours a weekÃ¢â¬ and of course the monthly salary of the employees is supposed to be minimum Ã¢â¬Å"103$Ã¢â¬ . The combination of a safe workplace and fair adjusted working conditions lead to a positive feeling for the employees and gives critics no space to create negative press. 3. In Indonesia, an income of $2.28 a day, the base pay of Nike factory workers, is double the daily income of about half the working population. Half of all adults in Indonesia are farmers, who receive less than $1 a day. Given these national standards, is it appropriate to criticize Nike for the low pay rates of its subcontractors in Indonesia? Of course it is! If a farmer is sick and needs to go home, he can. If he did not finish the minimum amount of crop he is not supposed to stay at the field. He is not imperiled to toxic chemicals and does not have to remain silence. The working conditions in those low-wage factories are worse than in every other job. On the one hand I understand Nike and I do know that it is impossible to keep an eye on everything but on the other hand if you know that people have to work for you in those bad situations you have to pay them at least moreShow MoreRelatedNike Case Study1004 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRSS Case Study: E-recruitment gets Nike on track Posted by HR Zone in Strategies on Thu, 09/12/2004 - 16:54 0 inShare The Nike employer brand is extremely powerful in attracting potential talent to the business making the process of handling applications and supporting the resourcing process effectively and efficiently critical to business success; implementing e-recruitment was identified as the way to solve this businesses hiring problems. The issue Nike currently receives aroundRead MoreNike Case Study1112 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCase Study- Nike 1. Discuss how Nikes growth can be attributed to its targeting of diverse market global segments. In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s Nike was only making running shoes. At this point in time not many people knew of Nike or the Nike swoosh. In order to increase brand awareness, they started paying athletes to wear their shoes. However, very soon Nike learnt that in order to be a global brand they needed to appeal to different market segments, not just athletes. Hence, they then decided to tapRead MoreNike Case Study1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction: This paper is a case study of Nike Inc. I will give a brief overview of the history, products, company goals, company challenges, financial report and sourcing strategies. My main sources of information are internet databases, company annual reports, and financial articles. Company Overview: Nike Nike incorporated, the worlds leading designer and marketer of authentic athletic footwear, apparel, equipment, and accessories for a wide variety of sports and fitness activitiesRead MoreCase Study Nike765 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Amanda Merkatz Management 301-02 Case Study 11 11252895 1. 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The other 8 percent comes from equipment and non Nike brand products, such as ColeRead MoreNike Case Study1779 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesNike Case Study Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements For Master of Business Administration Degree Tiffin University at University of Bucharest Information and Decision Support Course By Ciprian Jitaru Instructor: Prof. John J. Millar Ph.D. Dean Emeritus and Professor of Management Cohort 9 November 06, 2010 1. What external and internal pressures did Mark Parker face when he assumed the leadership of Nike, and how did he respond to this challenges? Read MoreNike Case Study1104 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCase Study- Nike 1. Discuss how Nikes growth can be attributed to its targeting of diverse market global segments. In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s Nike was only making running shoes. At this point in time not many people knew of Nike or the Nike swoosh. In order to increase brand awareness, they started paying athletes to wear their shoes. However, very soon Nike learnt that in order to be a global brand they needed to appeal to different market segments, not just athletes. Hence, they then decided to tap moreRead MoreNike Case Study899 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCorporation Case Study: Nike What is it? NIKE, Inc. is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading innovator in athletic footwear, apparel, equipment and accessories. Before there was the Swoosh, before there was Nike, there were two visionary men who pioneered a revolution in athletic footwear that redefined the industry. Nike Employees Nike Employee Networks are designed to help Nike move toward greater diversity. In the U.S., six employee networks focus attention on important communities within Nike. The intendedRead MoreNike Case Study5183 Words Ã |Ã 21 PagesNike Case Study The US-based Nike Corporation announced that it had generated profits of $97.4 million, around $48 million below its earlier forecast for the third quarter ended February 28, 2001. The company said that the failure in the supply chain software installation by i2 Technologies3 was the cause of this revenue shortfall. This admission of failure also affected the companys reputation as an innovative user of technology. The supply chain software implementation was the first part ofRead MoreNike Case Study1542 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin the stocks of Nike for the fund that she manages. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ford should base her decision on data on the company which were disclosed in the 2001 fiscal reports. While Nike management addressed several issues that are causing the decrease in market sales and prices of stocks, management presented its plans to improve and perform better. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Third party sources also gave their opinions on whether the stock was a sound investment. WACC CALCULATION: Cost of Capital Calculations: Nike Inc Cohen calculated
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Everyone kills, and everyone eats. Not everyone eats what they kill, but these remain two of the most intimate forms of communing with our environment, whether we recognize them as such, or not. Almost 40 000 Americans are killed each year as the result of homicidal, accidental, and suicidal uses of guns; in all, Americans wielding guns intimidate, wound, and kill hundreds of thousands every year. These were the kinds of ideas impressed upon me as I grew up in my urban home: Guns were beasts, as were knives, arrows, spears, indeed anything could become a weapon if held in a particular way. We sprayed each other with the hose instead of water guns, and spent many long hours as a family communing with nature through long walks on theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦We named her Ellen. We had her for dinner. She was tough, and tasty. I felt sad, but not cruel or inhumane. I had no ritual to perform before I took her life, nor one to perform afterwards. I did not know how these things were done. I did not know what it meant to be a hunter. When the opportunity arose for me to take a closer look into the hunting culture, I only had to look in the telephone book to find what I was looking for: Turkey Creek Guns and Archery in downtown Goshen, Indiana. I called them up, explained rather inarticulately what I was interested in, and soon set up meetings with what I believed to be thoroughly encultured, currently involved, non-analytic individuals. My research took the form of ethnography, with the goal of grasping my informants point of view, their relation to life, and their visions of their world . One of my first discoveries was that I needed to learn a new language: (what was a muzzleloader? Why was a solid blade better than an expandable arrowhead? What are cat-whiskers to a hunter?) I will attempt to pull you into the hunting world through the stories of a woman and man, whom I will call Beth and David, that own and run the local guns and archery shop. For the first interview I met Beth at what I considered to be a well-known local coffee shop, and relatively common ground for us both. Beth was quite comfortable in that setting although, she informed me, she had never been inside that place before. This wasShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Robert Flaherty s Famous Work Nanook Of The North1235 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe challenge of accurately representing ethnography, the critical analysis and systematic inspection of everyday life across cultures, has been repeatedly attempted with myriad intentions and has subsequently evolved over time. This paper will examine four iconic anthropological filmmakers in the mid-twentieth century in their individual distinctive endeavors to contribute to and accomplish this goal of developing ethnographic film. From Robert Flaherty s objective to showcase culture as art, toRead MoreKung Life: An Ethnography by Majorie Shostak1023 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe many ethnographies produced from the fieldwork of anthropologist, account for much of our knowledge of cultures we may consider foreign of our own. Ethnographies are often written to provide an understanding of the practices of the studied culture, thus bridging the gap between separate ways of life. Majorie Shostak is one of the well known anthropologist who attempts to do just this in her writings. During her stay in the Dobe regions of Botswana, she studied the life of !Kung women to findRead MoreEdward Bernett Was An English Anthropologist And The Founder Of Cultural Anthropology984 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesby Darwin and Lyell. His stance as an evolutionist fueled his belief that researching the prehistory and the history of man could be used to compare and reform modern societies. Therefore, through the use of the comparative method and historical ethnography, which included travel logs, Tylor attempted to reveal the stages of development of cultures/civilizations. TylorÃ¢â¬â¢s defines culture and civilization as a Ã¢â¬Å"phenomena related according to definite Laws-Methods of classification and discussion ofRead MoreThe Cahuilla Tribe919 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages6.Ã¢â¬ The tools used by the Cahuilla women was a stone tool named Metate, which was a smooth oval stone that could be used along with a pestle in order to finely ground acorns into a flour like consistency Ã¢â¬Å"Ethnography of the Cahuilla Indians, by A. L. Kroeber, , at sacred-texts.com.Ã¢â¬Å" Another valuable source of food that the Cahuilla had was the Mesquite tree. Which provided two types of food, blossoms in the spring, and green beanRead MoreIndividual Experience And Reflexivity By Renato Rosaldo s The And Reconstitution Of Self 931 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstates: I underscore here the agreement between all gatherings included, for it is paramount to perceive the courses in which informmants are additionally performers and specialists, and that the transaction of reality that happens in the doing of ethnography includes perplexing and moving relations of force in which the ethnographrapher demonstrations and is likewise followed up on. (Kondo 75) Kondo recognizes the influence that the Japanese have on her character and by so doing she recognizes theirRead MoreIndigenous Tribe Of Hunter Gatherers1686 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDeep within the rainforests of the Manu Provincial Park in Peru resides an indigenous tribe of hunter-gatherers known to us as the Mashco-Piro tribe. This tribe has remained un-contacted by modern culture until recent years and as such, the tribe continues to be a source of interest among anthropologists and civilians alike, for whom the secluded nature and Ã¢â¬Å"primitiveÃ¢â¬ culture of these people generates curiosity. The Mashco-Piro tribe has actively avoided contact with non-native individuals, howeverRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Fandom Of The Walking Dead 1167 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFor my ethnography project, I chose to study the fandom of The Walking Dead. For the purpose of this paper, I will refer to The Walking Dead as a comic, a video game, and a TV series. The focus of this ethnography is to understand how the comic book culture influences many fans. Since the series is based on a graphic novel series, and some of the fans are schooled in comic culture; they arrive with literacy in comic storytelling. 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The focus of this ethnography is to understand how the comic book culture influences many fans. Since the series is based on a graphic novel series, and some of the fans are schooled in comic culture; they arrive with literacy in comic storytelling. Others who areRead More Anthropology and Gender Essay1576 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnature of human evolution. Sally Slocum, a physical anthropologist born in 1937, declared that the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s role as gatherer in our evolutionary past was as significant to our cognitive, personality and linguistic development as the popular Ã¢â¬Å"man the hunterÃ¢â¬ theory. One of SlocumÃ¢â¬â¢s contemporaries, Eleanor Leacock (1922-1987) chose to differently analyze gender research, focusing on distinctions in power as it relates to society, the economy, and politics (2011: 397). She concentrated on North American
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(32) " additions to his care package\." Introduction Reflective practice promotes quality care as health and social care practitioners evaluate and analyse incidents and create action plans to improve current practice (Jones, 2010; Jasper, 2006). This essay aims to reflect on three incidents in practice using TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s (2006) model of reflection. This model of reflection was chosen because of its holistic nature. We will write a custom essay sample on Reflection on Three Critical Incidents in Practice or any similar topic only for you Order Now The steps of reflection is presented through the acronym REFLECT. The reflective process begins with Readiness, Exercising thought, Following systematic process, Leaving oneself open to answers, Enfolding insights, Changing awareness and Tenacity in maintaining reflection. I will reflect on my learning and professional development from the three experiences in relation to the 9 domains of the Professional Capabilities Framework (The College of Social Work, 2013). Incident One Description of the Incident I was requested to complete a social assessment for a service user who was about to be discharged from the hospital following a stroke. This service user has markedly reduced mobility. As part of the multidisciplinary team, healthcare team members requested that the care package should be increased from two calls to four calls per day. Part of the assessment is to determine the degree of mobility of the patient and the need to provide additional support or changes in his home setting to facilitate mobilisation. This is necessary since the patient lives alone. In settings where the patient has very reduced mobility, a carer will be hired to provide additional support (NICE, 2008). However, if a family member can provide additional support, it is encouraged that care should come from an individual that the service user trusts and is comfortable with (NICE, 2008). Using this knowledge, I completed my assessment and concluded that the patient does not need an increase in his care package. Meanwhile, I conducted a social assessment for the wife of the service user. Studies (Gordon et al., 2013; Fan, 2011; McCullagh et al., 2005) have shown that carers of patients with chronic conditions are at increased risk of depression. The demanding task of caring for a sick family member and seeing loved ones suffering from an illness are some factors that would increase this risk. Hence, it is suggested that carers should also receive social and emotional support to prevent depression (Gordon et al., 2013). Upon completing the assessment for the wife, I recommended social support for the wife. It has been shown that social support is important in preventing social isolation common amongst family members caring for those who are sick (Fan, 2011). Social support will also help carers interact with others who are experiencing similar situations. Engagement in a support group will help form friendships and relationships with people who are undergoing the same experience (McCullagh et al., 2005). Currently, a number of support groups for families of stroke survivors are available in the community. Membership in one of these groups could offer needed emotional and social support. Patients surviving a stroke suffer from reduced mobility and disabilities (NICE, 2008). Studies (Langhorne et al., 2011; Rimmer and Wang, 2005) have shown the importance of improving cardiovascular fitness to prevent future stroke episodes. These studies also highlight the importance of social support as integral in the management of the condition and in the recovery of service users. Family members play crucial roles during the rehabilitation of these patients (Langhorne et al., 2011). As a social care practitioner, it is my duty to ensure that service users receive quality care and their needs are sufficiently addressed. However, on assessment, the patient does not require an increase in his care package. Critical Care Incident Following my social assessment, I found out that the patient does not require an addition to his care package. This critical care incident became a dilemma since I was torn between following my colleaguesÃ¢â¬â¢ recommendations and pleasing them or presenting my findings that the service user does not need an increase in his care package. On reflection, I began to ask myself why I felt reluctant in discussing my findings with my colleagues. I realised that they did not insist that the care package should be increased. Instead, they were asking me to complete a social care assessment to validate their recommendations. On analysis, my reluctance was rooted in my desire to please my colleagues. This is not surprising since team members would want to create harmony in the group and avoid conflict. However, Clouston and Westcott (2005) explain that when managed properly, conflict might actually promote better outcomes for the group. On reflection, I should have discussed my findings immediately with my team members and explained why the patient does not need an addition to his care package. Effective communication requires members to listen to both verbal and non-verbal messages of team members (Glasby et al., 2008). While we had no communication issues in the past, I could have eased my apprehensions and communicate my concerns with team members. Meanwhile, Collins (2009a) also emphasise that effective communication is needed to collaborate effectively with others. Since I will be collaborating with these team members in the future, I should use the lessons I learned from this incident to ensure that the patient receives optimal care. I also realised that I should observe the domains of professionalism and professional leadership when working with teams and in assessing service users. Professionalism is described as the ability of a health and social care practitioner to exercise his role based on the guideline s presented in his profession (Peck et al., 2008). Since I have the necessary background to conduct a social assessment, I should be confident in my findings and share this with the group. It is also part of professionalism to accept suggestions from my colleagues in order to improve current practice (Barrett et al., 2005). Further, one of the 9 domains of the PCF is knowledge. I should be able to use my knowledge on social assessment for stroke survivors in informing my team that the service user does not need additions to his care package. You read "Reflection on Three Critical Incidents in Practice" in category "Essay examples" Next, I should also exercise professional leadership, which is also another domain of the PCF. In social care, leadership means the ability of social care workers to lead the management and care for service users (Barrett et al., 2005). Since leadership is a skill that is learned through constant practise, I should seek for opportunities where I can exercise leadership skills. In this incident, I should be able to lead the care of the service user following the findings of the social assessment. Changing Awareness The specific critical care incident in this case is my reluctance to discuss with my team members the findings of my social assessment. Reflecting on this incident, I realised that as a qualified worker I should demonstrate my knowledge and leadership when assessing the needs of the service users. I should not fear that my colleagues would not respect my findings. I also realised that I need to improve my self-esteem to effectively advocate for my service users. To continue my professional development, I should engage in trainings on how to communicate effectively with team members. I should also improve my knowledge on social assessment to help me decide on the most appropriate care for my service user. Since this incident, I began to be make changes in my practice. I improved my learning on social assessment and also began to be more confident in sharing my findings with the team and leading care. Developing my knowledge and leadership skills was essential since this would help me achieve two of the domains in the PCF. During supervision, I discussed this incident with my supervisor. Supervision plays an essential role in increasing job satisfaction of social care workers and in helping them become more effective in their areas (Carpenter et al., 2012). These meetings were important since it helped me clearly identify the problems of my service user and reflect on the best solution for his circumstances. I also felt on our meetings that I was allowed to critically thing through the problem and create a solution that is feasible for the client and my team. Incident Two Description of Incident A social care assessment was completed for a service user who underwent hip replacement after suffering from a fall at his home. After careful consideration, the team decided to transfer the patient from the hospital to a step down bed to allow for mobility rehabilitation. A physiotherapist completed a home visit to ascertain the type and level of support that the service user will need. The aim of the team is to restore normal living and independence for the patient as soon as possible. However, the physiotherapist reported that the service userÃ¢â¬â¢s home was unfit for habitation. There was no heating and a side lamp in the lounge remains as the only source of light. The house was filthy with black trash bags strewn in the kitchen. There was no food in the refrigerator. The house smelled of urine with the bed covers looking visibly soiled while the toilet also needs plumbing. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE, 2013) guideline for fall prevention has emphasised the need to assess the conditions of the home and make changes to facilitate easier mobility of the service user. As the environment is physically adjusted to the needs of the patient, this will prevent recurrent falls and will help improve mobilisation of the patient (NICE, 2013). On analysis, the patient was living alone and had difficulty maintaining the cleanliness of his home prior to his fall. This would suggest the need for assistance in the activities of his daily living. Although the patient refused any help, health and social care workers can act on the best interest of the patient and make changes on the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s home to make it safe and liveable (Glasby et al., 2008). The NICE (2013) guideline also states that home hazard assessment should be performed to allow safety interventions and home modifications. Consistent with the experience of the service use r of this incident, the home assessment was part of discharge planning. In addition, the NICE (2013) guideline emphasises that home modifications should be carried out within the agreed time frame between the patient and appropriate members of the healthcare team. However, it should be noted that home hazard assessment is not effective when follow-up and interventions are not introduced. The physical modification of the house alone is also not effective in preventing a recurrent fall. House modification should be supported with appropriate interventions for the patient. Critical Care Incident The service user is only allowed to stay for six weeks at the rehabilitation unit. Since the house needs repair and deep cleaning, there would be not enough time for the service user to move to his house after his discharge. The service user also refused to have carers since he feels that he is capable of taking care of himself. He explicitly stated that he does not want additional support to assist him with activities for daily living (ADL) and made a verbal request to the rehabilitation team to help him return to his home. For this particular case, the critical care incident involves respecting the wishes of the patient or acting on the best interest of the patient. As a qualified worker, I have to convince the patient that he could not immediately return to independent living since his house has to be repaired. In the meantime, we have to find a suitable place for him to stay before he can go home. Since the patient was adamant in returning home, I have to decide between acting o n the best interest of the patient or respecting patient autonomy. This means, I either have to follow the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes of returning him to his home even if it is still not fit for his condition or convincing him to stay in a temporary shelter. I consider this as an incident since social care workers should respect patient autonomy. However, this is difficult to follow especially if respecting the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s autonomy would not be for his best interest. On reflection, I began to question how I offered support to the patient after he expressed that he wants to go home after attending the six-weeks rehabilitation. It is understandable that patients who suffer from a fall do not want to be a burden to others. The NICE (2013) guideline notes that patients do not want to become an added burden to the staff when they want to ask help for mobilisation. On the other hand, I also have to inform the patient about his condition and why he needs to return to a home that is clean and modified for his needs. Hence, there is a need to introduce multidisciplinary management when caring for patients who have undergone hip fracture surgery. For instance, the NICE (2011) guideline for hip fracture expresses that a patient should be involved in a hip fracture programme that addresses all his health needs. Specifically, the guideline states that multidisciplinary teams should aim for recovery of mobility, functions and independence. The same guideline also reiterates that multidisciplinary teams should enable return of service users or patients to their residence and ensure the long-term wellbeing of this group. On analysis, our multidisciplinary team is following measures to ensure that the service user will return to a home that is safe and modified for his needs. This reflects values and ethics, one of the 9 PCF domains. The value of patient safety and ethics when caring for patients are demonstrated in our actions of helping the patient return to a safe environment following his discharge from the rehabilitation unit. Changing Awareness I had to consider the best interest of my patient even if he insists on returning to his home immediately after his discharge from the rehabilitation unit. Barrett et al. (2005) express that social care workers should always place the safety and best interest of the service user when deciding on appropriate interventions for the patient. This is consistent with the ethical principle of non-maleficence and beneficence (Runciman and Merry, 2012). The primary role of social care workers is to do no harm. Since the patient refused to receive additional support for ADL, I am aware that returning him to an unmodified home will increase the risk of recurrent fall. Although the patient was deemed as having the capacity to perform the activities of daily living, I felt that his current house is unsafe. Adding a challenge to the service userÃ¢â¬â¢s case was his refusal to have a carer to look after his needs and assist him with daily living. As noted previously, patients want to feel that they are still needed and they still have the capacity to perform ADL (NICE, 2011). Surrendering oneÃ¢â¬â¢s independence to a carer is perceived as demeaning and also depressing (NICE, 2011). Hence, I sought the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s approval to transfer the service user to a residential home temporarily until his house has been deep cleaned and modified. On analysis, patient-centred care is important to improve patient satisfaction and increase adherence to a care plan. However, there are cases where social care workers have to intervene in the best interest of a patient (Collins, 2009a). This case exemplifies this exception and shows the influence of social car e workers in making meaningful decisions for the health and wellbeing of services users. Incident Three Description of the event I completed a social care assessment for an elderly female patient who suffered from a fall in her home. She was transferred to the rehabilitation care home following her admission from the hospital. Healthcare team members recommend the restarting of the previous care package and increasing the package. On the completion of my assessment, my recommendations were identical to that of the healthcare professionals in my team. I recommend increasing the care package since the service user is experiencing poor health and has difficulty eating independently. The patient and her family members were very reluctant to accept the additions to the care package. Family members contacted my team and arranged a meeting with all health professionals involved in the care of the patient. The purpose of the meeting was to determine the type of support that the service user needs and to identify any additions in her care package. During the case conference, health and social care professionals explained why the patient needs modifications in her home and a carer to assist her in her ADL. For instance, it was explained to the family why the service user will need a stair lift and a pendant alarm. Additionally, the health and social care team agreed with my recommendations to provide the patient with support in preparing meals, intake of medications and personal hygiene. Although the family was apprehensive about the additional cost, they finally agreed to the increase. Critical Care Incident The service user was very reluctant to return to her home after a consultation was made on why her care package will be increased from two calls to four calls per day. She was also informed to hire one carer to support her needs and to assist her with ADL. Considering the cost implications of an added carer and increasing the number of calls each day, the service user declined the addition in the care package. The critical care incident in this case is the need to convince the patient that she needs the additions to her care package. This became a dilemma since this request entails that the patient and family members will have to make out-of-pocket expenditures. This could mean an added burden to the care of the patient. To convince my patient, I have to consider my knowledge on elderly care after hip surgery. This means I should give sufficient information about her condition and why she needs the additions to her care package. Since I am practicing patient-centred care, I gently reasoned out with the patient why she needs a carer once she returns home. The Department of Health (2008) reiterate that the patient should be involved in healthcare decision-making about their care and discharge. While I recognise the service userÃ¢â¬â¢s rights to refuse treatment, one should also consider that social care workers have to work in the best interest of their patients. Hence, I tried to convince the patient that she needs an addition to her care package to ensure that she is safe in her home and receives adequate nutritional support. I used my knowledge in elderly malnutrition in informing the patient why she needs an addition to her care. For example, I informed her that since she is an elderly, she is at risk of malnutrition compared to the general population. Malnutrition in the elderly is defined as a basal metabolic index (BMI) of 18.5 (Harris and Hboubi, 2005). This condition could be corrected with appropriate diet, nutrition and support (Harris and Hboubi, 2005). Further, malnutrition is a significant deterrent to optimal health and wellbeing (Age UK, 2010). Patients recover slowly or not at all when they are suffering from malnutrition. Hence, it is important to address malnutrition at this stage. Apart from malnutrition, there is also the issue of adherence to medications. There is evidence that adherence to medications might not be high amongst elderly patients (Maclaughlin et al., 2005). It is suggested that cognitive functions of this group are in decline. Hence, there is a need to introduce medicati on prompts to remind patients when to take their medications. Since the patient remains undecided after our consultation, I asked her to confide to her family and seek their advice. Engagement of family members in the treatment and care of patients has been shown to be effective in improving health outcomes (Glasby et al., 2008). One of the reasons for this effect is that family members are more committed to improving health outcomes of patients. Changing Awareness This incident helped me understood the domains of rights, justice and economic well-being in the PCF. It is the right of all service users to receive equitable care (Department of Health, 2008). Justice is not satisfied when service users do not receive equal access to healthcare services. However, the economic well-being of the patients should also be taken into account when recommending additions to care packages. It should not become an added burden to a family who might have suffered from financial difficulties as a result of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s illness. It was evident from the case that the family has difficulty supporting the service user. The cost implication of an addition in care package could act as a deterrent to access in health services. For instance, the family of the service user was initially reluctant to support the addition to the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s care package due to its cost implications. While support from social care services is available for different groups of service users, financial support is limited. Hence, this could be an important deterrent to care. In my future practice, I should ensure that al additions to a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s care package should be well justified, especially if the NHS does not cover these additions. For my professional development, I should always act on the best interest of the patient in ensuring that care is cost-effective and does not require patients and their family members to make out-of-pocket expenditures. On reflection, the incident was a learning experience since I need to be more acquainted on the economics of care. I evaluated my actions after arriving at the deci sion to request for additions to the care package and discovered that I was acting on the best interest of the patient. I learned that as a social care worker, I should always be an advocate for the patient. In my future practice, I will follow the same actions I made for this case. I will improve my communication skills with my patients to help them feel that I empathise with them and only wants the best care for them. Conclusion The three incidents presented in this brief illustrate the importance of patient-centred care when providing support for service users. Lessons from these incidents could be used to improve my current practise. Specifically, there is a need to communicate effectively with team members to ensure optimal and quality care of the patients. In incident one, I learned the importance of exercising my leadership and professionalism when acting on behalf of the best interest of the patient. I also learned the importance of facilitating normalisation and independence amongst my service users. Maintaining their independence would help improve their self-worth. In incident two, the values of patient safety and independence were exemplified. A home hazard assessment will improve patient safety since homes will be modified to suit the needs of the patient. In incident three, I learned to empathise with patients and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of additions in care packages. Although the pati entÃ¢â¬â¢s family was reluctant to spend for additions in care packages, the family eventually agreed to these additions. This reflective brief shows that a holistic approach should be made when addressing the needs of services users. This approach would view the issues of a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s case based on the social, environmental and political contexts. In this brief, health policies in the UK and NICE guidelines were used to support the discussions in this brief. The NICE guidelines serve as an important resource for information on how to manage patients with different health conditions. Social care workers could collaborate with inter-agencies to ensure that quality care is provided for each service user. As part of my professional development plan, I will continue to seek for opportunities to work with other professionals and practice positive communication. I also learned that I should respect the wishes of the service users and facilitate their independence and promote return to normal activities. I also learned that allowing my service users to regain their independence, their self-worth will increase and they will become more empowered. I also have to show empathy when addressing the needs of my patients, especially if they are concerned about the additional financial costs of additions in their care packages. Reflection has allowed me to become a better social care worker. In my future practice, I will use the lessons learned from the incidents to improve care for my service users References Age UK (2010) Seven Steps to end malnutrition, London: Age UK. Barrett, G., Sellman, D. Thomas, J. (2005) Interprofessional working in health and social care: Professional perspectives, London: Palgrave Macmillan. Carpenter, J., Webb, C., Bostock, K. Coomber, C. (2012) SCIE Research briefing 43: Effective supervision in social work and social care [Online]. Available from: http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/briefings/briefing43/ (Accessed: 12th December, 2013). Clouston, T. Westcott, L. (2005) Working in health and social care: an introduction for allied health professionals, London: Elsevier Health Sciences. Collins, S. (2009a) Effective communication: A workbook for social care workers, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Collins, S. (2009b) Reflecting on and developing your practice: A workbook for social care workers, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Department of Health (2008) Our Health, our care, our say: A new direction for community services, London: Department of Health. Fan, C. (2011) Ã¢â¬ËFactors associated with care burden and quality of life among caregivers of the mentally ill in Chinese societyÃ¢â¬â¢, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 57(2), pp. 195-206. Glasby, J., Dickinson, H. Community Care (2008) Partnership working in health and social care, London: Policy Press. Gordon, C., Wilks, R. McCaw-Binns, A. (2013) Ã¢â¬ËEffect of aerobic exercise (walking) training on functional status and health-related quality of life in chronic stroke survivors: a randomised controlled trialÃ¢â¬â¢, Stroke, 44(4), pp. 1179-1181. Harris, D. Haboubi, N. (2005) Ã¢â¬ËMalnutrition screening in the elderly populationÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 98(9), pp. 411-414. Jasper, M. (2006) Professional development, reflection and decision-making, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Jones, L. (2010) Reflective practice in nursing, Exeter: Learning Matters Ltd. Langhorne, P., Bernhardt, J., Kwakkel, G. (2011) Ã¢â¬ËStroke rehabilitationÃ¢â¬â¢, The Lancet, 377(9778), pp. 1693-1702. Maclaughlin, E., Raehl, C., Treadway, A., Sterling, T., Zoller, D. Bond, C. (2005) Ã¢â¬ËAssessing medication adherence in the elderly: which tools to use in clinical practice?Ã¢â¬â¢, Drugs Aging, 22(3), pp. 231-2455. McCullagh, E., Brigstocke, G., Donaldson, N. Kaira, L. (2005) Ã¢â¬ËDeterminants of caregiving burden and quality of life in caregivers of stroke patientsÃ¢â¬â¢, Stroke, 36, pp. 2181-2186. NICE (2013) Falls: The assessment and prevention of falls in older people, London: NICE. NICE (2011) Hip fracture: The management of hip fracture in adults, London: NICE. NICE (2008) Stroke: the diagnosis and acute management of stroke and transient iscahemic attacks, London: NICE. Peck, E., Dickinson, H. Community Care (2008) Managing and leading in inter-agency settings, London: Policy Press in association with Community Care. Pollard, K., Thomas, J. Miers, M. (2010) Understanding interprofessional working in health and social care: Theory and Practice, London: Palgrave Macmillan Limited. Rimmer, J. Wang, E. (2005) Ã¢â¬ËAerobic exercise training in stroke survivorsÃ¢â¬â¢, Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 12(1), pp. 17-30. Runciman, B. Merry, A. (2012) Safety and ethics in healthcare: A guide to getting it right, London: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Taylor, B. (2006) Reflective practice: A guide for nurses and midwives, Maidenhead: Open University Press. The College of Social Work (2013) Professional Capabilities Framework [Online]. Available from: http://www.tcsw.org.uk/uploadedFiles/PCFDomainsNOV.pdf (Accessed: 2nd December, 2013). How to cite Reflection on Three Critical Incidents in Practice, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
Metabolism Lab Report Paper The purpose of this lab was to see how the changes in exercise intensity affect the rate of metabolism within the body. Methods: In this lab, indirect calorimeter was used to measure metabolic rate by calculating caloric expenditure by the measurements of oxygen consumption. The variables measured were the fraction of oxygen expired, the fraction of carbon dioxide expired, and the total volume of air inspired. This experiment required the participation of two volunteers. First, the variables were measured variables while the two subjects were in a resting state. Readings were taken over a period of three minutes and averaged so that it could be assumed that the subjects were in a steady physiological state. After taking readings at a resting metabolic state, these variables were measured again while the subjects were performing light exercises: on a cycling bike and on a treadmill. The first exercise was on a cycle with 1 kip of resistance at 50 RPM. Data was measured in the third minute and recorded. This was followed by another three minutes on the cycle with 2 kip of resistance at 50 RPM. Again data was measured in the third minute and recorded. The second exercise was on a treadmill at 3. MPH with no grade, followed by 4. 0 MPH at a 7. 5% grade. Each session on the treadmill lasted three minutes and the data was measured and recorded in the third minute during both cases on the treadmill. Once all of these measurements were collected and recorded for both subjects, the absolute oxygen consumption, relative oxygen consumption, absolute ca rbon dioxide production, the respiratory exchange ratio (R), and ultimately Caloric expenditure were all measured. Studying these calculations provide some insight into how much energy the body is using as well s what sources the energy is coming from. We will write a custom essay sample on Metabolism Lab Report specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Metabolism Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Metabolism Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer For both subjects, the amount of air inspired increased with the intensity of exercise, along with the total volume of oxygen consumed. This directly correlates with METS, which increase with more vigorous exercise. In addition to this the volume of carbon dioxide produced, also increases with exercise. These correlations allow us to make predictions on R. We expect the weight bearing activity to produce values higher than rest and the non-weight bearing activity because you intake the most oxygen. At rest, you would expect to see a little over 1 MET, since these objects were in a resting metabolic state, not a basal metabolic state. This is equivalent to slightly over 3. 5 ml 02/keg/min. At rest and in a post-absorptive, you would expect to see R near . 7 since the body would be burning fats. As the intensity of exercise is increased, you expect for R to increase towards 1. 0 because it is easier for the body to obtain TAP quickly from burning glucose than from burning fat. B. There would definitely be a different caloric expenditure between a large person and a small person based on whether or not the activity is weight bearing or non-weight bearing. On a treadmill, you should expect to see different caloric expenditures for people of different sizes. Since this is a weight bearing exercise, a person that is heavier will burn more calories on a treadmill at a given speed and incline than a smaller person. This difference is not really seen in non-weight exercise. In contrast, using the cycle regretted, a non-weight bearing exercise, you would not expect to see as much of a difference in calories burned based on size. C. The advantage of expressing oxygen consumption relative to body weight (VEERED in ml/keg/min) versus absolute oxygen consumption (BASS in L/min) is that it takes into account other factors including body weight rather than just oxygen consumption. Using absolute oxygen consumption as a method of comparing people would not be accurate. By expressing oxygen consumption on a per kilogram basis, we can accurately compare people that are of different sizes. D. I weigh approximately 53 keg, so multiplying 3. 5 ml 02/min by 53 keg gives 0. 1855 L 02 consumed per minute. To determine how many liters of oxygen are consumed in a day we must multiply by 60 for the 60 minutes that are in an hour and then by 24 for the number of ours in a day. That gives me a total of 267. 12 liters of oxygen per day. Finally multiply the 267. 12 liters of oxygen per day by 5 kcal per liter to get a daily caloric expenditure of 1335. 6 kcal. E. Some factors that we can control that affect basal metabolic rate and resting metabolic rate are body surface area, body composition, caloric intake, and physical activity. An increase in any of these factors will also lead to an increase in ARM. There are also factors that we have no control of. These factors include age, genetics, and gender. With age n mind, as people get older resting metabolic rate decreases.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
French Listening Comprehension and Practice Exercises If youd like to improve your French listening comprehension skills, the exercises below can help you better grasp the language. TheyÃ includeÃ a French sound file with a study guide, quiz, transcript and translation. Altogether, there are more than 100 listening exercisesÃ on this site, ranging from simple dialogues to in-depth listening comprehension exercises. The most popular pages offer practical advice or discuss someone or something famous. The French Language Accents de FranceFrench varies from country to country and from region to region. Learn about some of the accents you might encounter in France in this audio report fromÃ LaGuinguette. French in France Introduction to French in France (dialects and standard French) and theÃ Dictionary of French Regionalisms. PatoisDiscussion about dialects in France and the two main points of view on their linguistic status. The Patois of VendÃ ©ePresentation of some characteristics of the French patois spoken in VendÃ ©e. Patois and Regional CharacteristicsDo regional differences in dialect reflect regional differences in mentality? Beginning French DialoguePractice your French listening ability with this beginning-level French dialogue featuring greetings and introductions and your choice of speeds: regular and slow. (Camille Chevalier Karfis) The Scary HouseBeginning level ofÃ Les portes tordues, a bilingual audiobook for beginning to intermediate students. (Kathie Dior) The Twisted DoorIntermediate level ofÃ Les portes tordues, a bilingual audiobook for beginning to intermediate students. (Kathie Dior) The CemetaryIntermediate level ofÃ Les portes tordues. (Kathie Dior) Greetings and IntroductionsPractice your French listening ability with this beginning-level French dialogue featuring greetings and introductions and your choice of speeds: regular and slow. (Camille Chevalier Karfis) Number Practice Learning to count in French is one thing - its fairly easy to memorizeÃ un,Ã deux,Ã trois. Its another matter entirely to be able to think of a number without counting up to it, or to understand individual numbers when you hear them. Fortunately, practice makes perfect, and these sound files can help you to get better at understanding and using French numbers with random number generators. (Laura K. Lawless) Who said no? Intermediate level ofÃ Les portes tordues. (Kathie Dior) Politics and Social Issues Riots in FranceOn 27 October 2005, riots began in a Parisian suburb and quickly spread across France and even to neighboring countries. In this three-part discussion, a reporter discusses the riots with two neighborhood elders in Clichy-sous-Bois who are trying to calm down the situation. SÃ ©golÃ ¨ne Royal - prÃ ©sidente?SÃ ©golÃ ¨ne Royal is a socialist whoÃ worked hard to become Frances first female president. Learn about her platform and her struggle in this discussion. LETA et le Pays BasqueIntroduction to the history behind the ETA, the Basque separatist movement. Le CPEIn January 2006, the French government passed a labor reform law that sparked off protests around the country. Learn about the CPE and why it was so distasteful to French students and workers. MitterrandJanuary 2006 marked the 10-year anniversary of the death of FranÃ §ois Mitterrand, the first and so far only socialist president of France. Learn about Mitterrand and some of the people who loved him. French Culture Graffiti Graffiti does not necessarily equal vandalism. Its a means of personal and even artistic expression. Learn about some of the people and techniques behind graffiti. Le jardin des TuileriesLearn about the famous Parisian park, le jardin des Tuileries, as you work on your listening comprehension with this three-part discussion. Cest de lamour vÃ ©ritable!Old age does not have to mean the end of living, or even loving. In this interview, a 90-year-old man shares his thoughts on how to get the most outÃ of life and love, at any age. La loi EvinLearn about the regulation of advertising of alcohol in France, and the reasoning behind it. Tourism, Shopping,Ã Travel Dining Out lhÃ ´tel ~ At the HotelÃ Beginning-level French dialogue between a hotel receptionist and guest.Ã Le viaduc de MillauÃ Le viaduc de MillauÃ was completed in 2004. Learn about its construction and safety mechanisms. Au magasin ~ At the storeBeginning-level French dialogue between a customer and storekeeper. Au restaurant ~ At the RestaurantÃ Beginning-level French dialogue between a waiter and customer. Breakfast ~ Le petit dÃ ©jeunerÃ Beginning-level dialogue between a customer and waiter at breakfast.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
The Biography of Francisco Morazan Jose Francisco Morazan Quezada (1792-1842) was a politician and general who ruled parts of Central America at different times during the turbulent period from 1827 to 1842. He was a strong leader and visionary who attempted to unite the different Central American countries into one large nation. His liberal, anti-clerical politics made him some powerful enemies, and his period of rule was marked by bitter infighting between liberals and conservatives. Early Life Morazan was born in TegucigalpaÃ in present-day Honduras in 1792, during the waning years of Spanish colonial rule. The was the son of an upper-class Creole family and entered the military at a young age. He soon distinguished himself for his bravery and charisma. He was tall for his era, about 5Ã feet 10 inches, and intelligent, and his natural leadership skills easily attracted followers. He became involved in local politics early, enlisting as a volunteer to oppose MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s annexation of Central America in 1821. A United Central America Mexico suffered some severe internal upheavals in the first years of independence, and in 1823 Central America was able to break away. The decision was made to unify all of Central America as one nation, with the capital in Guatemala City. It was made up of five states: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. In 1824, liberal Jose Manuel Arce was elected president, but he soon switched sides and supported the conservative ideals of a strong central government with firm ties to the church. At War The ideological conflict between liberals and conservatives had long been simmering and finally boiled over when Arce sent troops to rebellious Honduras. Morazan led the defense in Honduras, but he was defeated and captured. He escaped and was put him in charge of a small army in Nicaragua. The army marched on Honduras and captured it at the legendary Battle of La Trinidad on Nov. 11, 1827. Morazan was now the liberal leader with the highest profile in Central America, and in 1830 he was elected to serve as president of the Federal Republic of Central America. Morazan in Power Morazan enacted liberal reforms in the new Federal Republic of Central America, including freedom of the press, speech, and religion. He limited church power by making marriage secular and abolishing government-aided tithing. Eventually, he was forced to expel many clerics from the country. This liberalism made him the implacable enemy of the conservatives, who preferred to keep the old colonial power structures, including close ties between church and state. He moved the capital to San Salvador, El Salvador, in 1834 and was re-elected in 1835. At War Again Conservatives would occasionally take up arms in different parts of the nation, but MorazanÃ¢â¬â¢s grip on power was firm until late 1837 when Rafael Carrera led an uprising in eastern Guatemala. An illiterate pig farmer, Carrera was nevertheless a clever, charismatic leader and relentless adversary. Unlike previous conservatives, he was able to rally the generally apathetic Guatemalan Native Americans to his side, and his horde of irregular soldiers armed with machetes, flintlock muskets, and clubs proved hard for Morazan to put down. Defeat and Collapse of the Republic As news of the successes of Carrera came to them, conservatives all over Central America took heart and decided that the time was right to strike against Morazan. Morazan was a skilled field general, and he defeated a much larger force at the battle of San Pedro Perulapan in 1839. By then, however, the republic had irrevocably fractured, and Morazan only effectively ruled El Salvador, Costa Rica and a few isolated pockets of loyal subjects. Nicaragua was the first to officially secede from the union, on Nov. 5, 1838. Honduras and Costa Rica quickly followed. Exile in Colombia Morazan was a skilled soldier, but his army was shrinking while that of the conservatives was growing, and in 1840 came the inevitable result: CarreraÃ¢â¬â¢s forces finally defeated Morazan, who was forced to go into exile in Colombia. While there, he wrote an open letter to the people of Central America in which he explained why the republic was defeated and laments that Carrera and the conservatives never tried to really understand his agenda. Costa Rica In 1842 he was lured out of exile by Costa Rican Gen. Vicente Villasenor, who was leading a revolt against conservative Costa Rican dictator Braulio Carrillo and had him on the ropes. Morazan joined Villasenor, and together they finished the job of ousting Carrillo: Morazan was named president. He intended to use Costa Rica as the center of a new Central American republic. But the Costa Ricans turned on him, and he and Villasenor were executed on Sept. 15, 1842. His final words were to his friend Villasenor: Ã¢â¬Å"Dear friend, posterity will do us justice.Ã¢â¬ Legacy of Francisco Morazan Morazan was correct: Posterity has been kind to him and his dear friend Villasenor. Morazan is today seen as a visionary, progressive leader and able commander who fought to keep Central America together. In this, he is sort of the Central American version of Simon BolÃ var, and there is more than a little in common between the two men. Since 1840, Central America has been fractured, divided into tiny, weak nations vulnerable to wars, exploitation, and dictatorships. The failure of the republic to last was a defining point in Central American history. Had it stayed united, the Republic of Central America might well be a formidable nation, on an economic and political par with, say, Colombia or Ecuador. As it is, however, it is a region of little world importance whose history is most often tragic. The dream is not dead, however. Attempts were made in 1852, 1886 and 1921 to unite the region, although all of these attempts failed. Morazans name is invoked anytime there is talk of reunification. Morazan is honored in Honduras and El Salvador, where there are provinces named after him, as well as any number of parks, streets, schools, and businesses.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Chapter 4 - Assignment Example For this to succeed, communication must be present as it facilitates identification of goals, request making, and problem solving. Collaboration allows mutual support as well as the ability to share knowledge appropriately. The chapter maintains that the most important aspects of collaboration include parity, trust, respect, and establishment of common goals. We also learnt that there are several communication styles that can be used and incorporate unilateral, directional, and transactional where transactional method is preferred since it favors a two way mode of communication. However, there are several barriers that affect communication and collaboration. These include cultural background, gender, age, interests and experiences. To eliminate these barriers, both the teacher and the family need to exercise strong communication skills. It is more helpful to ensure that both verbal and non-verbal forms of communication are exercised appropriately so as to eliminate the barriers. The barriers are responsible for miscommunication. Specifically, the teacher should ensure that they avoid quick fixes to certain problems, avoid minimizing feelings by using false reassurances, and ask the most appropriate questions. When barriers emerge, problem solving strategies are used to retaliate. Such strategies include avoiding emotional responses and relying on a step to step procedure. This process incorporates identification of the problem, generation of potential solutions, evaluation of those solutions, implementation of the selected solution, and evaluation of the so lution. These steps also ensure that a conflict is resolved in a constructive manner. There are several myths thought to reduce miscommunication that include more communication being better, communication being a natural ability, and open communication being effective in solving problems. We also